A selection of 57 films from the Festival of (In)appropriation is now available for purchase!
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Festival of (In)appropriation #1 includes:
Khan (Daniel Martinico, 2008)
By re-cutting and looping a short segment of footage from Star Trek II: Wrath of Khan, Daniel Martinico acts as a puppeteer, making William Shatner twitch and tweak in various poses, periodically screaming out Khan’s name – to disturbing, and potentially hilarious, effect. This is an excerpt of a longer work.
The Blockbuster Tapes (Daniel Martinico, 2008)
This “film” serves as the documentation of a project completed between 1999 and 2002. During this period, the artist rented 100 videos from Blockbuster, manipulated very short segments of the videos, re-recorded the complete but altered videos back onto the tapes, and returned them to the store. This piece presents some of the altered segments.
Through these Trackless Waters (Elizabeth Henry, 2007)
In Through these Trackless Waters, Elizabeth Henry combines a series of fragments from nature films and educational films, which together add up to a meditation on the state of nature and the human condition, tracing connections between the ecology of the human mind and the ecology of the earth.
Utopia Variations (Gregg Biermann, 2008)
Utopia Variations is part of a series of video works by Gregg Biermann that uses the computational capacity of computers to radically transform iconic moments in works of classical Hollywood cinema. In this piece, the “Over the Rainbow” sequence from The Wizard of Oz moves forward from the beginning and backwards from the end in half second intercuts. The frame is gradually divided into 25 screens in which each iteration of Judy Garland’s voice emanates from a different frame, each slightly out of synch with the next. This results in a mesmerizing, kaleidoscopic matrix of image and sound.
The Game (Tasman Richardson, 2007)
Tasman Richardson’s The Game sends the viewer hurtling through a world in which remote control warfare, videogame fantasies, and horror films blend into a throbbing, rhythmic dance. While the images and sounds are superimposed upon one another, each segment is otherwise unaltered so that the rhythm and melody are established exclusively through the editing.
Outlaw (Ann Steuernagel, 2008)
Through radical editing and layering of footage from 16mm cowboy films, Ann Steuernagel’s Outlaw defamiliarizes the iconic tropes – visual and auditory – of the traditional Western. Ghostly “solarized” images of horses, cowboys, and train tracks, which advance in slow motion, are haunted by the sounds of horses hooves, train engines and train whistles as the landscape of the Western melts into abstraction.
TB TX Dance (Roger Beebe, 2006)
In Roger Beebe’s TB TX Dance, the background of the image, made of patterns of dots directly laser printed on clear leader, doubles as an optical soundtrack in which the different pitches are created by the density of the dots. Toni Basil, who danced in Bruce Conner’s Breakaway in 1966, repeats her dance within this abstract and frenetic world.
windshield baby gameboy movie (Clint Enns, 2009)
Images of a car crash are digitally abstracted through the interface of a Nintendo Gameboy Camera. As images of real violence are pixelated almost beyond recognition, Clint Enns’ film gestures towards the de-realizing and potentially dehumanizing aspect of video game images.
Flicker On Off (Caroline Koebel, 2008)
Flicker On Off is a trilogy in which images from big budget movies are reinterpreted through an experimental lens and repurposed to speak about world affairs. In Part I: Repeat Photography and the Albedo Effect (8:12), footage from Raging Bull is optically reprinted, solarized, fragmented and combined with a news commentary about the retreat of Mingyong Glacier, drawing parallels between human violence upon one another and upon the Earth. In Part II: Sunroof (Benazir Bhutto Assassination) (6:10), footage from gangster films is edited together with fragments of news footage and reports on former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto’s assassination. Part III: All the House (Haditha Massacre) (5:50) reedits an interview with a little girl who survived the Haditha Massacre, in which US Marines killed 24 unarmed Iraqi civilians, framing her story with sounds and images of senseless and continuous death. Together, these segments add up to a meditation on acts of violence with consequences that cannot be undone.
The Legend of Pwdre Sêr (Dave Griffiths, 2008)
According to folklore, “pwdre sêr,” which is Welsh for “star-rot,” is a gelatinous substance deposited on Earth during meteor showers. In Dave Griffith’s The Legend of Pwdre Sêr, fragments of film marked by movie cue-dots are cut together and overlaid with a voiceover explaining the legend. These cue marks, originally intended to tell the projectionist to switch film reels, are transformed into “characters” and beautiful images in their own right. This video was produced for “The Golden Record” exhibition, a contemporary version of the phonograph record included by Carl Sagan in the two Voyager spacecraft in 1977.
Speechless (Scott Stark, 2008)
In 1976, two medical professionals published a textbook called The Clitoris, which was accompanied by a set of Viewmaster 3D reels. In Scott Stark’s Speechless, these 3D photographs of human vulvae are interwoven with surfaces and textures from natural and human-made environments. The flickering effect seems to animate these images and instills in them a power and presence that transcends the way female genitalia are normally portrayed, whether crudely sexualized in modern porn, or subjected to the sterile scrutiny of the physician's gaze.
Her Heart is Washed in Water and Then Weighed (Sasha Waters Freyer, 2006)
Sasha Waters Freyer’s Her Heart is Washed in Water and Then Weighed meditates on motherhood and mortality and the relationship between the two. Poignant and painful stories told from multiple mothers’ perspectives are interspersed with images of home, children, and family – as well as a human body being dissected. The film takes its title from a procedure in the autopsying of a human corpse but suggests also the struggle for human beings to value and to be valued by one another.
Festival of (In)appropriation #2 includes:
Asleep at the Wheel (Mike Maryniuk, 2005)
By punching holes into a found filmstrip and hand processing his own images, Mike Maryniuk tosses the viewer headlong into a hallucinatory road-trip. Images of highways stretching ever forward are populated by figures and faces that appear only briefly, like a landscape flashing by.
Alone (Gerard Freixes Ribera, 2008)
Taking the glorification of the “lone” hero’s individualism to its logical extreme, Gerard Freixes Ribera deletes everyone – from sidekick to villain – from the film except the Lone Ranger himself. Without the other characters to round out the narrative, our hero is left talking to himself and fending off invisible demons in a melancholy, empty world.
The Animated Heavy-Metal Parking Lot (Leslie Supnet, 2008)
In this animated tribute to Jeff Krulik and John Heyn’s 1986 video documentary classic Heavy Metal Parking Lot, Leslie Supnet reconstructs her favorite scenes using cut-out characters made out of aged paper, glue, and ink. The “found” sound provides the template against which the animation is formed.
Friend Film (Colin Barton, 2008)
In what Colin Barton describes as a “eulogy to lost friends,” 35mm originals are hand-painted, optically reprinted, and then reworked with a little help from an electric toothbrush and a washing machine. Faces, eyes, and a variety of recognizable symbols emerge from a morass of lines and colors, accompanied by a grating, immersive soundtrack. River Phoenix, who died at the age of 23 from a drug-induced heart attack, appears periodically throughout the film, perpetually separated from us by a barrier of distressed celluloid.
The Ship (Brandon Downing, 2009)
Bringing together images of a deep sea diver with images from Hollywood B-movies of the 60s, 70s and 80s and a song called “Duniya Mohabbat Karne Na Degi” from the Indian film Jaan Pechaan (1952), Downing subtitles the Hindi lyrics to approximate their phonetic (rather than semantic) English equivalent, thereby imputing (unintended) sexual connotations to both the song and the accompanying images. This subtitling makes a humorous commentary on the materiality and fundamental non-referentiality of all language and on our (problematic) tendency to rely on subtitles for “information” about the image.
Emergence (Marcin Blajecki, 2009)
By tracing over the images of a 1953 McGraw-Hill film called Physical Aspects of Puberty, Marcin Blajecki creates an animated music video that emphasizes the way in which educational films transform the human body into a system that can be explained and deconstructed. While gesturing towards the simple beauty of such films, Emergence also reminds us of all that cannot be accounted for by lines and diagrams.
That’s Right! (Matthew Causey, 2008)
In this playful compilation of cartoon imagery, Matthew Causey seeks out one kind of (simulated) camera movement and draws our eyes in a never-ending movement toward what is just to the right of the frame.
Anemic Cinema with Z Coordinate (Jorge Sa)
Jorge Sa’s tribute to Marcel Duchamp’s experimental film, Anemic Cinema, uses 3D software to extrapolate 3D images from Duchamp’s footage, adding depth to a film that originally emphasized flatness.
The Motions of Bodies (Ann Steuernagel, 2008)
Inspired by Galileo's experiments with gravity, Ann Steuernagel’s The Motions of Bodies combines many found images of people and objects falling or flying through space, which are repeated so as to create dizzying patterns of motion. This kinetic frenzy is further emphasized through the soundtrack, which evokes the milieu of the circus, a space fundamentally structured around the spectacle of bodies in motion.
Isolating Landscapes (Heidi Phillips, 2007)
A first exploration of narrative, Isolating Landscapes hints at relationship woes by mixing both spare and lush handcrafted imagery with confessional text. Beautifully minimal scenes give way to denser moments, as when an ice-sculpture of an anatomical heart is hung, lantern-like, over a darkening street.
The Last Interview in Exile (McLean Fahnestock, 2008)
In January 1980, journalist David Frost conducted a final interview with the exiled Shah of Iran in Panama. By drawing out a single exchange of question and answer to over a minute, McLean Fahnestock defamiliarizes the format of the “official” interview in to a disturbing, funny, and yet strangely poignant interaction.
Profanations (Oriol Sanchez, 2008)
Oriol Sanchez’s Profanations is a three-channel video work consisting of the appropriation and reconstruction of images and sequences of films by Marey, Pudovkin, Kirsanoff, Eisenstein, Romero, Halperin, and Kuleshov, among others. Through spatial and temporal juxtapositions, Profanantions disarticulates the narratives of the appropriated images so that a series of new micro-stories emerge, organized around Campanas de Luz (Light Bells), a music composition by Joan Riera Robuste.
Festival of (In)appropriation #3 includes:
Five-Dimensional Vacation 2 (Ryan Lamb, 2010)
Ryan Lamb’s Five-Dimensional Vacation 2 is one in a series of videos exploring issues of time through visual representation. This video appropriates amateur 8mm film footage depicting a 1960’s family vacation, which Lamb found on the Web, and manipulates the image so that each moment seems to visually “echo” until it fades into the next image.
Voice on the Line (Kelly Sears, 2009)
Kelly Sears’ collage animation was made from figures cut out of late 1950s ephemeral films. The film repurposes these images to narrate the story of a secret government operation involving telephone operators tasked with monitoring the personal lives of US citizens. While it dabbles with absurdity, Voice on the Line nevertheless reflects on current and troubled relationships between the areas of national security, civil liberties and telephone companies, pointing toward the ways in which technology can be used to shape our fears and desires.
Nuke Em, Duke (LJ Frezza, 2010)
The production of the film titled The Conqueror, starring John Wayne as Genghis Khan, took place downwind from a nuclear testing site, and close to half the cast and crew developed cancer, including “the Duke” himself. Drawing from this as well as other John Wayne films and footage from current wars in the Middle East, LJ Frezza’s Nuke Em, Duke examines “conquest” as it appears in past and present media, both fiction and non-fiction. Literalizing the media’s “compression” of these experiences into mediated forms ready for consumption, the film emphasizes the continuities between “conquest” in the analog and digital eras.
Suspension of Belief (Wago Kreider, 2010)
By alternating rapidly between the sound and images from Tarnished Angels (Douglas Sirk, 1958) and Dr. Strangelove (Stanley Kubrick, 1964), Wago Kreider’s Suspension of Belief produces a dizzying effect while emphasizing the ways in which aerial technologies are fundamentally linked to the desire to dominate the landscape.
Pfft.. Pfft.. Pfft.. (Catherine Ross, 2009)
Appropriating snippets of footage from American popular movies of the last two decades, Catherine Ross’s Pfft..Pfft..Pfft.. is a sequence of impossible pairings of sound and image that nevertheless almost “fit.” The improvised vocal effects by Adam Matta focus the viewer on the connection between the human and the mechanical as well as the magic in our everyday actions.
World on Wheels (Tanja M. Laden, 2008)
Tanja M. Laden’s World on Wheels combines vintage animation from the Prelinger archives and music from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at UCSB to produce an image of the world structured entirely by the roads and other transportation technologies that keep human beings in perpetual motion.
A Movie by Jen Proctor (Jennifer Proctor, 2010)
Using online video culled from YouTube and LiveLeak, Jennifer Proctor creates a (nearly) shot-for-shot remake of Bruce Conner’s epic 1958 film A Movie. By closely following the template provided by Conner’s film, Proctor’s video offers a parallel set of images that reveals the changes in historical and visual icons from 1958 to 2010. Yet, even as these differences emerge, we become simultaneously aware of all that remains surprisingly, disturbingly, and delightfully the same.
Blow Job (Stuart Sandford, 2009)
This tongue-in-cheek homage to Warhol’s film of the same name features a brief, repeated clip of teen heartthrob Zack Morris (Mark-Paul Gosselaar’s character on Saved by the Bell), which suggests that he is on the receiving end of some sort of off-camera pleasuring. Although this film is potentially very funny, by sexualizing this originally G-rated footage of a teenager, Stuart Sandford’s film also puts the viewer in a precarious ethical position.
Galactic Docking Company (Clark Nikolai, 2009)
In footage that will be familiar to many viewers, NASA technicians and administrators watch their screens in order to monitor the launch of a space shuttle. However, in Clark Nikolai’s version, what their eyes follow with such eagerness is not only a space shuttle, but also a range of penises and penetrations. By inserting these images into the NASA footage, Nikolai’s film both sexualizes and queers this footage, rendering it “inappropriate” in relation to both the sober discourse of science and progress and heterosexual social norms.
Thoughts (Julian Krubasik, 2008)
By adding a contemplative first-person voiceover to a reedited version of Jean-Luc Godard’s 2 or 3 Things I Know about Her, Julian Krubasik transforms Godard’s imagery into a meditation on missed opportunities.
The Western Front (Lauren Cook, 2010)
Three different narrators tell stories of senseless violence and cruelty, both political and personal, which are ultimately one in the same. By juxtaposing hand-painted images from nature films, science films, and ethnographic films with Lauren Cook’s own footage, the film examines the events we choose to remember and forget in order to be able to live our lives – and the continued violence inherent in the act of forgetting.
Festival of (In)appropriation #4 includes:
Interdimensional Headphase (Dillon Rickman, 2011)
Using images from the film known as “Turkish Star Wars” as his substrate, Dillon Rickman manipulates the digital code underlying the images to transform them into magnificent eruptions of color, to the point that the original images are barely recognizable. Strange figures emerge from the digital fog and then disappear back into its depths.
Camp (Peter Freund, 2011)
Peter Freund’s Camp superimposes the political and theatrical senses of the word “camp,” pointing to unexpected convergences between the figure of the concentration camp and camp aesthetics. Without diminishing the horror of the Holocaust, the film suggests the essential role of fantasy in traumatic historical memory and the ethical grounding of campy enjoyment. Two narrators, one speaking Mandarin and the other Arabic, mix statements by Giorgio Agamben, Susan Sontag, and other writers with original commentary.
Lucky Strike (Shashwati Talukdar, 2010)
By appropriating Lucky Strike commercials and footage of the atomic bomb tests from the 1950s, Shashwati Talukdar points toward the ontological affinities between corporate and government attempts to convince people to listen to and trust the “authorities.”
Jive (Steve Cossman, 2011)
Steve Cossman’s Jive can be described as both an assault on the senses and a mystery. To make this film, Cossman took a single photograph and broke it up into 100 segments, which he then reshot in various sequences and turned into a flickering barrage of tiny images that have been blown up to fill the screen. A throbbing soundtrack by Jeff Smith further intensifies this visual experience, transforming it into a full body vibration. At the same time, however, the film challenges us to try to identify or envision the original photograph – which it teasingly never reveals.
The Homogenics (Gerard Freixes Ribera, 2010)
In The Homogenics, Gerard Freixes Ribera appropriates footage taken from The Dick Van Dyke Show and reedits the imagery so that Dick Van Dyke multiplies, occupying several roles at once and having hilarious conversations with himself. However, the film points not only to the homogeneity of the suburban setting in which the show takes place but also on the stereotypical gender roles reinforced by the show as Dick Van Dyke takes on both the masculine and feminine roles.
Ceibas Epilogue: The Well of Representation (Evan Meaney, 2011)
In this “remake” of Hollis Frampton’s 1979 film Gloria!, Evan Meaney hacks into a 16-bit video game set in the early 20th century. Ceibas Epilogue: The Well of Representation, which is part of Meaney’s larger Ceibas Cycle, reveals not only the humor we may find in an outdated media object but also the poignancy of loss – lost data, lost memory and lost life – as our visions of the past break down into digital noise. By reediting and rewriting some of the game’s text boxes, Meaney reveals how a simple game can be transformed and repurposed for poetic ends.
Avo (Muidumbe)/Granny (Muidumbe) (Raquel Schefer, 2009)
In Avo, Portuguese filmmaker Raquel Schefer’s personal exploration of her family’s history merges with the larger history of Portugal’s colonization of Mozambique. By dressing up just as her grandmother appeared in archival home movie footage taken in 1960 in Mozambique and then restaging the footage with herself in her grandmother’s role, Schefer points to the ways in which descendants of colonizers must still come to grips with the colonial legacy.
Kanye West Apologizes to George W. Bush (Jaimz Asmundson, 2011)
Splicing together footage from two different episodes of The Today Show to create his film, Jaimz Asmundson allows hip-hop star Kanye West and George W. Bush to have a conversation about whether Bush, as West once said publicly, “doesn’t care about black people.” The humor of this film emerges as we come to realize that West and Bush never actually sat down together in the same room and that, in fact, we are watching two separate interviews that have been artfully merged into one.
A Reasonable Man by Brian L. Frye (USA, 2011)
In March 2001, a Georgia police officer observed Victor Harris speeding and initiated pursuit. Deputy Timothy Scott joined the pursuit and intentionally collided with Harris, who crashed and was rendered a quadriplegic. Harris sued Scott, alleging that Scott used excessive force because the pursuit did not endanger the public. Scott responded that the pursuit did endanger the public, and submitted two videotapes of the pursuit taken from the front of two police cars. The trial court held that a jury should decide the case because the parties disagreed about a question of fact: whether the pursuit endangered the public. In Scott v. Harris, the Supreme Court reversed 8-1, holding that the videotapes conclusively disproved Harris’s version of the facts. A Reasonable Man uses the videotapes submitted by Scott and excerpts from the oral argument before the Supreme Court to show how courts have evaluated one kind of motion picture evidence.
Guttae (Marcin Blajecki, 2010)
“Guttae” literally means “drops.” In Marcin Blajecki’s film, science films about the ocular, circulatory, and nervous systems are combined with images of people jumping off diving boards and a car crash. The music and a voice saying “Another heartbeat stopped. Do accidents just happen?” add a sense of menace to these “educational” images.
The Voyagers (Penny Lane, 2010)
In 1977, NASA sent two Voyager spacecraft on an epic and risky journey into interstellar space. Each Voyager carries a golden record album, a massive compilation of images and sounds embodying the best of Planet Earth. While working on the golden record, Sagan met and fell madly in love with his future wife, Ann Druyan. The record became their love letter to humankind and to each other. Recently, Penny Lane began her own hopeful voyage into the unknown, and this film serves as a love letter to her fellow traveler.
Festival of (In)appropriation #5 includes:
Crop Duster Octet by Gregg Biermann (US, HD video, 5:30, 2011)
In Crop Duster Octet, the iconic “crop duster” sequence from Hitchcock’s North by Northwest in which Cary Grant is repeatedly attacked by a small airplane swooping from the sky is deconstructed into eight horizontal bands, each of which is slightly out of synch with the next. As the scene (and, in particular, Grant’s body) is continuously decomposed, the patterns of action are refigured and intensified, culminating in a crescendo of convergence.
Saskatchewan by Richard Wiebe (US, 16mm on DV, 16:00, 2012)
Using 16mm footage and Edison Voicewriter recordings created by family members many years before, filmmaker Richard Wiebe – whose family came from Saskatchewan but who grew up in North Carolina – paints a portrait of rural culture in the plains of Canada in the 1940s. Wiebe’s father, grandparents, aunt, uncle and others now gone, along with trains and cattle, populate the stark but beautiful landscape.
I For NDN by Clint Enns and Darryl Nepinak (Canada, video, 1:34, 2011)
This humorous film comments on the implicit assumptions embedded in our most basic education. Clint Enns and Darryl Nepinak appropriate footage from an educational program designed to teach children their vowels – and an unsuspecting character finds himself serving as an example.
Scarlet by Sharon A. Mooney (US, video, 4:44, 2012)
Audio samples culled from Jane Fonda films from the 1960s and 70s are woven together over lenticular images of sexpot aliens, which are physically tilted to transform one image into another. The meditative soundtrack combined with snippets of dialogue generates a hypnotic atmosphere in which the strange visual transformations seem to reflect our distorted perceptions of ourselves.
Cat Scannd by Michael Guccione (US, video, 3:27, 2010)
Guccione became interested in how a TV image is built. The NTSC standard is a series of scanned lines on alternating fields of 262½ lines resulting in a composite of 525 lines of picture signal. Guccione wanted to slow down what took place in nanoseconds to a perceivable movie experience. He came across one of the first televised images scanned mechanically during the late 1920s by RCA: cartoon character Felix the Cat made up of just 60 lines. The early experimenters placed a 13” paper maché effigy of Felix on a turntable and aimed the camera point at their smiling model as they tried to make television a viable visual medium. Using this footage along with pinches of Hans Richter, Paul Hindemith, Tor Johnson and others, Guccione constructs an absurdist commentary on the televisual image.
Night Hunter by Stacey Steers (US, 35mm on HD video, 15:30, 2010)
Meticulously crafted from approximately 4000 handmade collages and incorporating images of Lillian Gish taken from silent-era live-action cinema, Night Hunter evokes a disquieting dreamscape drawn from allegory, myth, and archetypes. Images from four silent-era films featuring the actress Lillian Gish are combined with 18th and 19th century engravings to create rich, imaginative environments. In some instances Gish is cut out of specific scenes and reconfigured in collage environments; in others, collage materials are applied directly to printed film frames. The subsequent fluidity of character and space becomes a critical element in the texture of the film and the identity of the principal character. Music and sound by Larry Polansky.
Machine Language by Robert Todd (US, video, 5:30, 2012)
In Part 3 of Robert Todd’s "Future Perfect" series, which highlights the digital grammar of Star Wars Episodes 1-3, robots speak to one another in series of blips and beeps that – isolated from their narrative contexts and human dialogue – become a mysterious poetry that suggests communication but also refuses to cohere into comprehension.
La Salle Hotel by Scott Fitzpatrick (Canada, 35mm on video, 2:00, 2011)
An abstracted depiction of the 1946 fire at the La Salle Hotel in Chicago, Illinois, where even the frame itself threatens to collapse. Archival footage is broken down digitally, colorized, and laser-printed directly onto 35mm film.
Revving Motors, Spinning Wheels (Action Painting) by Jeremy Rotsztain (US, video, 4:05, 2011)
Revving Motors, Spinning Wheels (Action Painting) is an animated digital painting composed using cinematic gestures from Hollywood action films. High-octane moments from car chases — humming motors, screeching turns, and crashes — are digitally extracted and transformed into colorful abstract expressionist gestures in the tradition of Jackson Pollock. The Action Painting series brings together the adrenalin-filled culture of action cinema and the formalist canon of modernist painting; it follows the recent cultural trend of aestheticizing violence, and pushes it to an exaggerated level.
Forsaken by Heidi Phillips (Canada, 16mm on video, 4:30, 2012)
In Forsaken, Heidi Phillips abstracts images selected from found footage using contact printing, hand tinting, and toning. Muscle men, machinery, and building climbers become foreboding figures in this darkly apocalyptic film.
Ghost of Yesterday by Tony Gault (US, video, 5:30, 2012)
This collage of digitally-rotoscoped Super8 home movies bought on eBay explores our collective abandonment of analog imagery and is Gault’s personal attempt to reconcile with digital imagery. A variety of anonymous figures engage in recognizable home movie activities: a woman hands her child to a priest for baptism, a parent holds a small child’s hands helping him walk, a family eats dinner together and sharing drinks, a bride and groom dance at their wedding. Yet only certain parts of these figures are visible, floating against a black background before they, too, fade back into black. The soundtrack – a combination of foleys and Billie Holiday singing “Ghost of Yesterday,” the song from which the film takes its name – further emphasizes the ghostly quality of these images.
Retrocognition by Eric Patrick (US, video, 17:37, 2012)
This animated collage of photographic fragments is based around a “script” made up of audio samples from over 200 different WWII era radio dramas. Drawn from all different genres, these audio clips create a schizophrenic narrative within which the visually fragmented characters are ensnared. By isolating and focusing our attention on the tropes of these radio dramas, Retrocognition produces a critique of the classic representation of the American nuclear family.